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Citrus Fruits

Dhar Lab




1. Please do NOT request an internship WITHOUT reading our work.
2. Submit a list of unanswered questions emerging from our publications.

3. Internships are unpaid at JNU .... Also, I am NOT Sir/Ma'am! 



Pawan K Dhar,
Balakrishna Pisupati 

Funded by Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi


Pawan K. Dhar
Professor, School of Biotechnology,

Jawaharlal Nehru University

New Delhi 110067

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What is Synthetic biology?


Synthetic biology is a rational and ground-up construction of biomolecular components towards applications. The construction may be in the native or a non-native setting.

The term 'Native'  refers to the redesign of existing pathways. Non native refers to the transfer of  pathways across organisms.  Though the term was proposed 1970s, it was formally reintroduced in June 2004, at the first annual conference of synthetic biology at MIT

What makes synthetic biology unique?


1. Rational design and construction in biology

2. Genome-wide data sheet of part, device and circuits

3. The rules of composing an organism are unknown.

4. IEEE equivalent standards in biology do not exist.

5. installable pathways as plug-in, plug out apps

6. non ATGC DNA

7. Long DNA synthesis technology

8. Genome editing tools

9. Biofoundry

You may want to quickly read some of the FAQs HERE

Looking back, the term 'genetic engineering' seems to be a bit of exaggeration!


In reality, researchers practiced ‘probability’ in the name of  'engineering'. With the emergence of Synthetic biology, a conscious effort towards engineering biological systems, using standards and rules of composition, has begun! 

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Dark Genome publications


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